Large scale commercial application of millimeter wave is the key to release the full potential of 5g. His report predicts that by 2035, 5g will create 13.2 trillion US dollars of economic output and 22.3 million jobs worldwide, bringing positive changes to many industries such as automobiles, manufacturing, health care, education, entertainment, etc.
Under this grand vision, 5g deployment is much faster and larger than 4G. In the first year of 4G, only four operators deployed networks and three terminal manufacturers released products; in the first year of 5g, more than 30 operators deployed networks and more than 40 terminal manufacturers released products.
Millimeter wave is very important to fully release 5g potential
5g deployed frequency band is divided into sub-6ghz and millimeter wave. The former has the advantage of balancing network coverage, capacity and performance, while the latter can provide data rate of several thousand megabytes, larger capacity and lower delay, which is very important to fully release the full potential of 5g performance, capacity and throughput.
However, with the development of 2G, 3G and 4G, and other factors, the spectrum below 6GHz is very scarce. In the 4G era, the spectrum resources allocated by various operators are discontinuous and less than 100MHz. However, the bandwidth of millimeter wave in high frequency band is 25 times more than that of 3G and 4G. It can provide 800 MHz bandwidth deployment network for operators and become the key to release 5g potential. Millimeter wave 5g networks in 24GHz, 28ghz, 39ghz and 47ghz bands will be deployed in different regions of the world.
According to the latest data analysis of ookla, the average 5g download rate of the terminals equipped with snapdragon modem and RF system is five times faster than that of 4G LTE in the existing network test below 6hgz band. Compared with the frequency band below 6GHz, 5g MMW can download 4 times faster with an average speed of 900mbps and a peak speed of more than 2gbps. This means that both supporting 4K and 8K multimedia content live broadcasting, or promoting operators to provide wireless traffic packages, will work under 5g millimeter wave with high capacity and high speed.
In addition, 5g millimeter wave also has the characteristics of low delay, which will support cloud games, cloud computing and other interactive services that need multi sensory coordination, and will also meet the high demand of industrial Internet applications.
Li Fuchang, deputy director of wireless technology research of China Unicom researcher, said at yesterday's Seminar on in-depth interpretation of GSMA millimeter wave technology that there are many millimeter wave application scenarioses, including hot coverage of scenes such as gymnasiums and squares, intelligent private network in the park and fixed wireless broadband access. When talking about the deployment scenarioses of millimeter wave, Ericsson senior standardization manager Wang Wei also said that millimeter wave can be applied to hot area coverage, fixed wireless access and large video transmission scenarioses.
"Currently, millimeter wave is mainly for outdoor deployment, which can significantly improve the current mobiles experience," Luo Tao, senior director of engineering and technology of Qualcomm, said at the seminar. The initial deployment of millimeter wave focuses on smart phoness, which are mainly driven by operators, and the initial deployment focuses on urban densely populated areas, such as Chicago, New York, San Diego or San Francisco.
For indoor deployment, millimeter wave can complement the existing wireless services provided by Wi Fi, and expand to new terminal types, bringing superior speed and unlimited capacity while supporting enhanced experience. All of these create value for the mobiles ecosystem, including operators, service providers, venue owners, equipment manufacturers and terminal manufacturers. "
However, some breakthrough technologies are needed to make full use of millimeter wave technology to fully release 5g potential.
Breaking through the bottleneck of industrialization
Due to the poor diffraction and diffraction ability of millimeter wave, small propagation coverage in complex environment, large propagation loss in free space, and easy to be affected by rain, tree and haze weather, the commercial deployment of millimeter wave still faces many challenges.
However, academia and the industry are actively exploring solutions to the challenges of millimeter wave technology, and Qualcomm has provided a solution verified by simulation experiments.
Aiming at the problem of limited coverage and high cost of millimeter wave, high pass achieves significant coverage with CO address. "In the 5g era, with advanced beamforming technology, we can achieve millimeter wave transmission over 150 meters," Luo said. This technology is verified not only by simulation experiment, but also by field test, which means that millimeter wave can achieve co address with existing hot spots and small base stations. Similarly, CO locations with Wi Fi can also be achieved if there is relevant infrastructure equipment. "
At the same time, Luo Tao pointed out that it is a misunderstanding of millimeter wave to realize only line of sight transmission and fixed transmission, and 5gnr can provide a solution for it. In 5g design, high pass physical layer signal can support fast adjustment and switching of nearby beams, so as to efficiently utilize multipath and reflection. "If a transmission path is blocked by the hand or other parts of the body, a new transmission path can be quickly found by activating another module on the phones. We also extend this conversion from within the base station to different base stations, which means that the switching of millimeter wave transmission between different base stations can also be realized quickly This solution can support fast channel switching.
In addition, due to the larger bandwidth of millimeter wave, the energy consumption of millimeter wave is higher in essence, which brings severe heat dissipation challenges to the smaller size terminals. To this end, the company has launched a millimeter wave module integrating antenna, RF front section and transceiver. Luo Tao said that a mobiles phones can use multiple such millimeter wave modules, not only to meet the compact and slim design requirements of smart phoness, but also to meet the power consumption requirements and provide maximum performance.
Lei Feng learned that in February of this year, Qualcomm conducted an advanced 5g millimeter wave OTA outfield test in San Diego, USA, which verified that the millimeter wave modem can still maintain high-speed network connection in the case of large traffic and crowd blocking, and the millimeter wave terminal can still maintain high-speed network connection in the highly challenging environment of continuous movement.
At the same time, Qualcomm is also promoting the system simulation of rel-16 and future versions.
Proven mobiles millimeter wave opens a new chapter of 5g
In June this year, rel-16 just completed the freeze. Expand 5g to vertical industries through rel-16. Among them, rel-16 introduces many 5g NR enhancement features supporting millimeter wave, including integrated access and return (IAB), enhanced beam management, power saving, dual connection optimization and positioning. Integrated access and return (IAB) technology supports the flexible deployment of small base stations, reusing spectrum and equipment in access and return, which can save money.
Lei Feng network learned that when 5g was first deployed, the number of users was small. In order to meet the demand of millimeter wave for small base stations, optical fiber can be connected to the base station. However, when the number of users is increased, it is difficult to lay all optical fibers to the base station, and the cost is too high. The cost can be saved by connecting the optical fiber with IAB and using wireless as the return transmission.
In addition, IAB's dynamic topology can flexibly reallocate access and return resources, and support different access backhaul partitions on different gnodebs to meet the dynamic requirements.
High pass also extends millimeter wave coverage by deploying IAB. In February this year, Qualcomm deployed 7 gnodebs, 400 millimeter wave terminals and 28 IAB nodes within a square kilometer area of Frankfurt center. It is verified that after the deployment of IAB nodes, the millimeter wave coverage is significantly increased, and the network throughput is also improved.
Although millimeter wave was considered "fragile" in the past, it is feasible to apply millimeter wave to mobiles communication from the practice of high pass. Luo Tao said that in the future, Qualcomm will be committed to expanding millimeter wave to indoor, public networks and enterprise private networks, and deploy areas with high data rate and capacity requirements and dense flow of people. Rel-17 also gives millimeter wave more expectations.
At the same time, under the unified guidance of the Ministry of industry and information technology, the three domestic operators have also helped the development of 5g millimeter wave. Li Fuchang said that China Unicom will accelerate the development of the domestic industrial chain by carrying out the millimeter wave pilot test in the Winter Olympics scenario.
Li Nan, deputy director of the Wireless Technology Research Institute of China mobiles Research Institute, said that it is expected to realize millimeter wave commercial use in 2022 and hopes to cooperate with the industry to continue to verify the availability of millimeter wave.
At present, 120 operators in the world are actively investing in millimeter wave. Maybe we still can't imagine what kind of disruptive changes 5g will bring to the world, but we can see that the blueprints of industrial Internet of things, smart city, intelligent driving, medical health and other fields become clearer with the development of 5g technology.
Undoubtedly, the large-scale commercial application of millimeter wave is the key to release the full potential of 5g.